A number of papers have attempted to study firm-specific characteristics of the participants in the SEC-administered XBRL Voluntary Filing Program (VFP). However, to date, their findings have been conflicting—contrary to the underlying theory or inconclusive due to methodological limitations. Some of these limitations include the use of limited subsets of VFP data, the use of portfolio matching designs containing matching weaknesses, and omission of key explanatory variables. This paper attempts to overcome some of these limitations by using a more comprehensive sample, employing a more effective matching procedure, and a more complete set of variables suggested by both voluntary disclosure and organization theories. Consistent with the theory, higher voluntary disclosure propensity, stronger corporate governance, and better profitability are found to be robustly significant factors associated with voluntary XBRL adoption in the U.S. Innovativeness is a distinguishing characteristic for non-high-tech VFP participants. Analyst following, auditor quality, and earnings quality are less robust characteristics.

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