This study compares managers' voluntary disclosure of pro forma earnings—an alternative measure to generally accepted accounting principals (GAAP) earnings—in the U.S. and Canada. The results indicate some distinct differences between the two countries in that U.S. managers (1) disclose pro forma earnings more frequently, (2) place greater emphasis on the pro forma earnings number relative to the GAAP earnings figure, and (3) make greater (income‐increasing) adjustments from GAAP in calculating pro forma earnings than do their Canadian counterparts. While we find distinct differences in the use of pro forma between the U.S. and Canada, we do not find evidence that it is used for different purposes. Our evidence suggests that in both countries pro forma earnings is used by some corporations to affect users' perceptions of firm performance. Overall, given the differences in managers' use of pro forma, a form of voluntary disclosure, our results suggest caution in moving to a uniform (cross‐border) system of financial regulation.
The Voluntary Disclosure of Pro Forma Earnings: A U.S.‐Canada Comparison
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Gary M. Entwistle, Glenn D. Feltham, Chima Mbagwu; The Voluntary Disclosure of Pro Forma Earnings: A U.S.‐Canada Comparison. Journal of International Accounting Research 1 January 2005; 4 (2): 1–23. https://doi.org/10.2308/jiar.2005.4.2.1
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