This exploratory study presents evidence on the general characteristics, risks, and controls of all non-profit organizations (NPOs) reporting a fraud (asset diversion) between 2009 and 2015. Compared to NPOs that did not report a fraud, the fraud-reporting NPOs were larger, older, more likely to be a 501c3, and urban. Data from the Form 990 provided information on the risks and controls present. Risks were positively associated with higher levels of reported fraud for all sizes of NPOs. However, controls were more often related to lower levels of fraud only for larger NPOs, with the level of controls present increasing with the size of the organization. We also identify new variables that should add to our understanding and also variables used in prior studies that may not have enough variance to add any insight. Based on the results from this study, we provide suggestions for future research.

Data Availability: Form 990 data were purchased from and are available from GuideStar. Rural and urban codes were purchased from and are available from GreatData.

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