The purpose of the Sansing (1999) paper is to bring some rigor to the fuzzy and contentious area of valuation discounts. This is worthwhile as valuations are seldom dispassionate searches for the truth. Sometimes the taxpayer's goal is to inflate the value, as in the case of a charitable donation; in other situations, such as for estate and gift taxes, the desire is to obtain a low value.

The first part of the discussion considers discounts for lack of marketability, while the second part considers minority discounts and integrates the two types.

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