This instructional resource is based on an actual case of financial reporting enforcement and invites students to reflect on two main themes: the treatment of research and development costs and the enforcement of financial reporting standards. First, students are to analyze a cooperation agreement under which German company White Pharmaceuticals AG receives access to the research and development results of their U.S.-based partner. While applying managerial judgment in interpreting the transaction, students review the treatment of internally generated and separately acquired intangible assets under IFRS and U.S. GAAP. In addition, they are asked to discuss the convergence of the two major accounting regimes. Second, the case study fosters students' understanding of how financial reporting standards are enforced when the German Financial Reporting Enforcement Panel (FREP) starts an investigation into how White Pharmaceuticals AG accounted for payments that the company conducted in the course of the cooperation. Students become aware of the consequences such an investigation may have as the FREP finally adjudges that White Pharmaceuticals AG should restate their financial statements.

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