This article examines how an individual-level academic performance measurement system interacts with the collective self in a collectivist cultural context. The qualitative study of a Vietnamese public university involved 53 interviews, participant observations, and document analysis. The findings show that performance measurement systems in the university produced both an autonomous self and a collective self. They do so by measuring individual performance and suggesting that individuals are autonomously responsible and able to influence such performance. Thus, although a performance measurement system is typically imposed by others (which shows one’s dependence on others and subjection to their power), the nature of the performance measurement system is such that it promotes individual actions and a sense of individual performance. Therefore, people feel they have control over “their” performance. However, while trying to control such performance, they depend more on others whose recognition appears to link with such performance measurement systems.

Data Availability: Data are not available for confidentiality reasons.

JEL Classifications: I2; M41; M48; P2.

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