I use responses from 1,059 chief audit executives (CAEs) of organizations located in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa, the U.K./Ireland, and the U.S. to investigate several correlates of co-sourcing and/or outsourcing (hereafter, simply “outsourcing”) of internal audit activities. An important finding of the study is that audit committee involvement is positively and significantly associated with outsourcing of internal audit activities. Interactions of audit committee involvement with organization size and location generally indicate that medium and large international/multinational organizations with audit committee involvement outsource more than medium and large local/national organizations with no audit committee involvement. Analysis of control variables produces significance for an inverse relationship between outsourcing and value-added activities of the internal audit function, and for positive relationships between outsourcing and missing skill set and audit staff vacancies. Other control variables, such as CAE age, college degree (graduate/undergraduate), major (accounting versus others), internal audit certification, and regular meetings with the audit committee do not show significant associations with outsourcing. Also, country of residence (U.S. versus other Anglo-culture countries) is not significant, but for-profit organizations outsource significantly more of their internal audit activities than not-for-profit/governmental organizations.
Data Availability: Please contact the Institute of Internal Auditors Research Foundation, which owns the CBOK (2010) database used in this study.