This paper examines the origination and evolution of Chinese double-entry- bookkeeping from the fifteenth century to eighteenth century. It demonstrates that Chinese merchants and bankers invented some types of double-entry spontaneously around the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries. Several different versions of Chinese double-entry existed and evolved throughout this period to the nineteenth century. Chinese versions of double-entry are similar to Italian-style bookkeeping, although Chinese experience was independent of the dissemination of the Western methods.

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