One of the cornerstones of financial statement analysis is the discounted cash flow valuation. Despite the broad use of this valuation technique, and the economic importance of employee stock options to firm values, there is little guidance on how employee stock options should be incorporated in a valuation. This paper provides a comprehensive approach to doing so, including consideration of the income tax implications of option exercises, the simultaneity of equity and option valuation, and the use of the disclosures that were mandated recently by Statement of Financial Accounting Standards No. 123. The paper provides a comprehensive example using Microsoft's fiscal 1997 financial statements and employee stock option disclosure. This paper should be of interest to academics and practitioners involved in corporate valuation and financial statement analysis.
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